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Types of Visual Arts and Examples| Complete Details

 Types of Visual Arts


DRAWINGS CAN BE FINISHED WORKS OF ART, or preparatory studies tor paintings and other visual arts. They can be made using a wide variety of drawing instruments such as pencils, graphite sticks, chalks, charcoal,pens and inks, and silver wires. The most common drawing instrument 1s the graphite pencil. A graphite pencil is consists of a thin round shaped graphite mixed with clay, encased in wood. Charcoal is one of the oldest drawing instruments. It is produced by firing twigs of willow, vine, or other woods at high temperatures in airt1ght containers. Erasers are used to rub out marks made by drawing pencs such as graphite pencils or charcoal, or to achieve a particular effect such as smudging. Fixative is applied- using a mouth diffuser/aerosol spray fixative to prevent smudging once a drawing is completed. Silver lines can be produced by drawing silver wire across specially prepared paper a technique kmown as silverp0int. The lines are permanent and canot be erased.In time the silver lines oxidize and turn brown.


lHE TERM TEMPERA is applied to any palt
ln whi1ch pigment is tempered (mixed) w13
a water-based binding medium-usually egg yolk. Egg tempera is applied to a Smooth surface such as vellum (for illuminated manuscripts) or more commonly to hardwood panels prepared With gessoa mixture of chalk and size (glue). Hog hair brushes are used to apply the gesso.A layer of gesso grosso (coarse gesso) is followed by
different layers of gesso sotile (fine gesso) that are sanded between coats to provide smooth and clear,in absorbent ground. The paint is applied with fine sable brushes in thin layers, using light brushstrokes. lempera dries quickly to form a tough skin with a satin sheen. The luminous white surface of the gesso combined with the overlaid paint produces the brilliant crispness and rich colours particular to this medum. Egg tempera paintings are frequently gilded with gold. Leaves of fnely beaten gold are applied to a bole (reddish-brown clay) base and polished by burnishimg.


FRESCO 1S A METHOD OF WALL PAINTING. In buon fresco (true fresco),pigments combined with water and applied to an intonaco means layer of fresh and damp lime-plaster, The intonaco absorbs and binds the pigmemts as it dries and mak the picture a permanent part of the wall surface.The intonaco is applied in sections known as giornate . The size of each giornata depends on the artist's estimateof how much can be painted before the plaster sets. The junctions Gaps in giornate are sometimes visible on a finished fresco. The range of colours used in buon fresco are limited to lime-resistant pigments such as earth colours (below). Slaked lime (burnt lime mixed with water), bianco di San Giovanni (slaked lime that has been partly exposed to air), and chalk can be used to produce fresco whites. In fresco secco (dry fresco), pigments are mixed with a binding medium and applied to dry plaster. The pigments are not completely absorbed into the plaster and may flake off over time.

4. OLS

OiL PAINTS ARE MADE BY MIXING and grindig pigment with a drying vegetable oil such as linseed oil. The paint can be applied to many different surfaces and textures the mostt common being canvas. Before painting, the canvas 1s stretched on a wooden frame and its surface is prepared with layers of size (glue) and primer. The two main types of brushes used in oil painting are stiff hog hair bristle brushes
generally used tor covering large areas; and soft hair brushes made from sable or synthetic material- generall used for fine detail. Other tools, including painting knives, can also be used t0 achieve different effects. Oil paint can be applied thickly
(a technique known as impasto), or can be thinned down using a solvents like turpentine or white spirit. Varmishes are
sometimnes applied to complete paintings to protect their surface and to give them a matt or gloss finish.


WATERCOLOUR PAINT IS MADE OF GROUND PIGMENT mixed with a water-soluble binding medium, usually gum arabic. It is usually applied to paper using soft hair brushes such as sable, goat hair, squirrel, and synthetic brushes. Watercolours are often diluted and applied as overlaying washes (thin, transparent layers) to build up depth of colour. Washes can be laid in a variety of ways to create a range of different effects. For example, a wet-in-wet wash can be achieved by laying a wash on top of another wet wash. The two washes blend together to give a fused effect. Sponges are used to modify washes by soaking up paint so that areas of pigment are lhghtened
or removed from the paper. Watercolours can also be applied undiluted -a technique known as dry brush- to create a broken-colour effect. Watercolours are generally transparent and allow light to reflect from the surface of the paper through the layers of paint to give a luminous effect. They can be thickened and made opaque by adding body colour (Chinese white)


PASTELS ARE STICKS OF PIGMENT made by mixing ground pigment with chalk and a binding medium, such as gum arabic. They
vary in hardness depending on the proportion of the binding the most common form medium to the chalk. Soft pastel
of pastel cotains just enough binding medium to hold the pigment in stick form. Pastels can be applied directly to any support (surface) with sufficient t0oth (texture). When a
pastel is drawn over a textured surface, the pigment crumbles and lodges in the fibres of the support. Pastel marks have a particular sott, matt quality and are suitable for technques such as blending, scumbling, and feathering. Blending is a technique of rubbıng and fusing two or more colours on the support using fingers/various tools like tortillons (paper stumps), soft hair brushes, putty erasers, and soft bread. Scumbling is a technique of building up layers of pastel colours. The side or blunted tip of a soft pastel 1 slightly drawn over an underpainted area so that patches of the colour beneath show through. Feathering is a technique of applying parallel strokes of colour with
using  pastel, usually over an existing layer of pastel colour. A thin spray of fixative can be applied-using a mouth diffuser (see pp. 430-431) or aerosol spray fixative-to a finished pastel painting, or in between layers of colour,to prevent smudging.


ACRYLIC PAINT IS MADE BY MIXING PIG MENT with a synthetic resin. lt can be thinned with water but dries to become water insoluble. Acrylics are applied to many surfaces, Such as paper and acrylic-primed board and canvas. A variety of
brushes, painting knives, rollers, air-brushes, plastic scrapers, and other tools are used in acrylic painting The versatility of acrylics makes them suitable for a wide
range of techniques. They can be used opaquely or by adding water - in a transparent, watercolour style. Acrylic
mediums can be added to the paint to adjust its


CALLIGRAPHY IS BEAUTIFULY FORMED LETTERING. The term applies to written text and illuminat1on (the decoration of manuscripts using gold leaf and colour). The essential materials needed to practise calligraphy are a writing tool, ink, and a writing surface. Quills WoE are among the oldest writing tools. They are usually made from goose or turkey feathers, and are noted for their flexibility and ability to produce fine lines. A quill po1nt, however, 1s not very durable and constant recutting and trimming 1s required. The most commonly used writing 1instrument in western
calligraphy is a detachable, metal nib held in a penholder. The metal nib is very durable, and there are a wide range of different types. Particular types of nibs such as
copperplate, speed ball, and roundhand nibs -are used for specihc styles of lettering. Some nibs have integral ink reservo1rs and others have reservoirs that are detachable. Brushes are also used for writing, and for filling in outlined letters and pantıng decoration. Other writing tools used in calligraphy are fountain pens, felt-tip pens, rotring pensS,
and reed pens. Calligraphy inks may come in liquid torm, or as a solid ink stick. Ink sticks are ground down 1n distilled water to forma liquid ink. The most common writing surfaces for calligraphy are good quality, smooth -Surfaced papers. To achieve the best writing position, the calligrapher places the paper on a drawing board set at an angle


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